儒家 到底是儒雅的 儒家 还是 懦弱的 懦家

儒家一直给人一种肩不能挑,手不能提,百无一用是书生的印象,以至于有人说儒家实为懦家,这种说法成立吗?

儒家 到底是儒雅的 儒家 还是 懦弱的 懦家

儒和懦,字形相近,都以为字根,那么就从字看起。

始见于甲骨文,甲骨文的“需”本没有雨字头,字形是人身上往下滴水。这个人身上湿漉漉的,可能是淋了雨,也有可能是刚沐浴完回来,具体见下图中的1号字。

儒家 到底是儒雅的 儒家 还是 懦弱的 懦家

需字演变

但是到了西周,字形就变的和现在的需字一样了,上

但字形为什么是上而,下面这个到底是何含义?

基本意思是作名词时表示颊毛,作动词时表示能够。一般是做助词连词。《说文解字》对其的解释是:“而,颊毛也。象毛之形。《周礼》曰:‘作其鳞之而。’”

颊毛就是胡须,而怎么会是胡须?来看看而字的演化过程:

儒家 到底是儒雅的 儒家 还是 懦弱的 懦家

而字演变

在甲骨文中,这个字看起来,明显就是画了一把胡子;

到了小篆字形,一般认为依旧象胡须形。上面的“一”表示鼻端,“|”表示人中;下面分内外两层,外层像两腮的胡子,内层像生在嘴下的胡子。

那么字下方的这个到底在这里代表什么意思?是从“胡须”引申出“柔软的”,转义为“柔和的”含义?还是需字在甲骨文里的最早字形,身上滴着水的人?

字在金文中的字形,观察,明显可以看出有人的形态,并且“”字意中也有表示对称或领有,相当于“你”、“你的”

予岂不知而作。——《诗经·大雅·桑柔》

余知而无罪也。——《左传》

子归,殁而父母之世。——《国语·吴语》

字根据下面这个字的不同含义,同样引申出不同的含义:

看做上雨下,需同须,《易·彖传》曰:需,须也。

看做上雨下人,有专家因字面象以水冲洗沐浴濡身之形,有说是沐浴;有说是人被雨淋湿,为雨所阻;

也有人认为这是在乞雨,而《易经》六十四卦中的需卦,乾下坎上,也就是水在天之上,可不就是云雨吗?因此也有和乞雨有关的需要、等待这样的含义。

儒家 到底是儒雅的 儒家 还是 懦弱的 懦家

《需卦》象征等待:具有诚实守信的品德,光明正大,做事才会亨通顺利,占问的结果是吉祥的,出外远行,渡过宽阔的河流会很顺利。 《象》曰:云上于天,需;君子以饮食宴乐。 《象辞》说:《需卦》的卦象是乾(天)下坎(水)上,为水在天上之表象。水汽聚集天上成为云层,密云満天,但还没有下雨,需要等待;君子在这个时候需要吃喝,饮酒作乐,即在等待的时候积蓄力量。

需字无论按被雨淋湿,还是乞雨来看,均有有沾湿、润泽、沁润之意,可引申为沾染,使其加以改变,让其变的柔软的意思(一般事物用水沁湿后就软了);同时需同须,故有柔软之意。

古文字大师朱骏声《说文通训定声》:“即今所用濡沥字。”马叙伦、李镜池等学者都认为需是“”的本字,意为濡湿。

综上,需字最基本的含义,应该是软化,软的。看看以需为根的字:

糯 :从米,指糯之米;

孺 :从子,指身体柔的幼儿;

襦 :从衣,指贴身穿的柔的内衣,短衣,短袄;

嚅 :从口,指两片嘴唇轻轻相碰,嚅嗫(说话吞吞吐吐的样子);嚅忍(欲言而止)

蠕 :从虫,指没有甲壳、骨头的虫子,也就是乎乎的肉虫子;

懦 :从心,指内心弱;

如果照这样推理 儒 从人,就是软人了,就是软弱无能的人?儒在甲骨文中可是一个高贵的存在,怎么可能是什么软人。

甲骨文中有儒帝子、儒人、儒师、子儒的记载(见《甲骨续存》11859片,《京都甲骨》2894片,《铁云藏龟》1683片,《殷虚文字乙编》7715片)。由这些名词可见,殷商时代,儒已经是高贵的职称,往往和帝子、公子、国师联系在一起。

以致孔子对子夏说:“汝为君子儒,无为小人儒”(《论语》6、13),荀子分儒为俗儒、雅儒、大儒(见《儒效》),这表明儒群扩大了。

前面提及需为濡的初字,除了沾湿、润泽、软化之意外,还有沾染、改变之意,如濡染,耳濡目染

字,从人,改变的是人,儒应该是执行教化的人,也就是最早的老师,教导人们礼仪、文化,受到教化的人们知礼后,就会变得有教养,不再鲁莽而为,也就是软化了。

但是这种软化,可不是什么肩不能挑,手不能提的软化,而是内心的另一种强化,不以力量治人,不以拳头论理,而是靠礼靠理。

只不过后来在宋、明、清几朝,不断强化下,文人才不事劳作,一心只读圣贤书,和底层社会脱离,才给人一种百无一用是书生的印象,但是这些都是没读通书的半吊子的穷酸腐儒,真正的大儒则是内心坚定,胸怀天下之辈,岂能用 懦家 二字羞辱。

儒家 到底是儒雅的 儒家 还是 懦弱的 懦家

,的本意应该是老师,是教导人们礼仪、文化,执行教化的人,所以孔子打破阶级限制,广收学徒,自然就成了大儒,孔子建立的学派又重礼仪,也就被称为儒家了,后来儒这个字,就成了孔子学派的专属名称了。

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