老子的面向对象讲义 引子

正式开始之前,先讲一个故事。既然是讲故事就要守讲故事的规矩,故事的开头一般都有一句 long long ago far far away,那么这个故事也从 long long ago far far away开始。

long long ago far far away 出了一个神童,出了一部天书。long long ago,的确是够久远的了,在两千五六百年之前。 far far away,这个倒是一点也不远,就在河南安徽交界的地方,不过那时候可没有什么河南、安徽这样的地名,那时候这个地方叫做陈国,再具体点说是陈国苦县。听听苦县,这个名字可是真够苦的了。不过就是在这么一个苦县里面出了一个神童,为什么说是神童呢?神童就是个没有老师能教的孩子。家里为他请了很多老师,不过没两天这些老师就都不干了, 因为这个小孩子问的问题这些老师都答不上,答不上就没了面子,没了面子就不好意思继续给人家做老师了,古人的脸皮薄的很,只能辞职跑路。那么这个小孩问的都是些什么问题呢?时间久远已经不可考证了,不过据我猜想大体是问一些春天花为什么会开?秋天树叶为什么会落?之类的问题。

家里人一看这孩子没老师教一天到晚野着也不是个事,便到处托关系走后门,具体情节请各位参考当今那些为孩子能进名校花高价买学位房,或者拿着票子到处拜托别人收下的虎妈猫爸们的所作所为,自己脑补。反正最后是为他聘请到了当时最著名的大学士商容来,这个商容可不简单,不但是著名学者兼博士导师,并且还是个实打实的正部级干部。据说商容是殷商主管礼乐的大臣,就是现在的文化部部长,因不满商纣王所作所为,而罢官回家。后来周武王打败商纣王后,想请商容来辅佐他,并给了三公这样的高位,可是商容却没有答应,反而跑到山里隐居起来了。

就这么大的一个大知识分子也不过只教了三年,就说自己已经没有什么能教授的了,自己会的都已经教完了,要辞职走人。神童一听不干了,老师你走了,我怎么办?我还感觉自己还是什么都不知道?您实在要走,能不能再给我推荐一个老师?商容说:我也不知道还有谁能教你了,你要是还想学,估计就只能自学了。神童就问:老师自学,怎么自学?商容回答:自学就是自己读书自己体会。神童又问:读书?读什么书?书在哪里?商容又说:当然是读遍天下书,你要学会并融汇天下的各种学说,才能悟出真道理。我推荐你去大周图书馆做个图书管理员,这样你就能免费看遍天下书了,还有工资可以拿,能免你衣食之忧。不过就是这真经远在天竺国大雷音寺我佛如来处,离这里有十万八千里,你可愿意去?你可敢去?跑偏了,这不是西游记。

这大周图书馆自然是在大周朝首都洛邑(洛阳),而洛邑离苦县有。。。有。。。让我算算,现在从鹿邑到洛阳走高速350公里,大概4个小时,所以前面说far far away,一点也不远,但这是按照现在的高速公路、高铁飞机来衡量了,别说两千五六百年之前,就是一二百年之前,大部分人的生活半径也不超过20公里,很多人甚至终身没离开过自己的村子,离家百里已经算得上是一个很大的冒险了,更别说在那个两千五六百年之前的纯天然无污染的纯绿色时代,那时候可没有这么笔直的高速公路,路都是因时就势,依据山川河流,找好走的地方走出来的。所以这个尺寸怎么着也多个10%,另外在周朝一里路可不是50米,而是大概是415米多一点,这样以来,现在的350公里就是(350+350/10)*1000/415=927.7里,这九百多里绝对算的上是far far away了,坐上马车也要走上20多天,因为马车一般一天也就40里。

继续商容的问话:这大周图书馆离苦县这里,有八百多里多里地,你可愿意去?你可敢去?神童说:我愿去,我愿去,我也敢去。只要能学到知识,什么苦我都能吃。

于是乎,神童离家千里,成了一名光荣的图书管理员。诸位可千万别小看了这图书管理员的职位,这可是一个藏龙卧虎职位,大名鼎鼎的扫地僧也不过是一个寺庙图书馆的清洁工兼临时图书管理工作,还不是正式编制的图书管理员,就能大败北乔峰他爹和南慕容他爹,而华盛顿的一个图书馆里还曾经卧过全球首富比尔盖茨这个大老虎,不过最牛的是北大图书馆,这里藏过龙,在这曾经有过一个年轻的管理员,大家都猜到了,乃是我们的太祖。另外太祖夫人竟然也曾经是一名光荣的图书管理,江青上世纪30年代曾经在国立青岛大学图书馆做过三年图书管理员。

所以千万别小看图书管理员,而且这个图书馆还是两千五六百年前的图书馆,这是一个什么概念呢?两三千年前我们现在常见的英语、法语等语言还没有被发明出来,当时能够拥有文字这么个高级、高贵、高档东西的文明用一个手的手指头都能数的过来,更别说图书馆这么高大尚的了,图书馆没点积累可是玩不转的。被誉为人类世界的太阳和亚历山大灯塔一同照亮了整个人类文明的西方世界最早的图书馆亚历山大图书馆,也不过是在两千二三百年前才修建的。大周图书馆什么时候建立的已经不可考了,不过能确定的是两千五六百年前,曾经有一个来自陈国苦县的神童在这里做过一名光荣的图书管理员。据此推测这个大周图书馆至少比亚历山大图书馆早三百年,很有可能就是当时整个世界上唯一的图书馆,不过这个话有点大,至少是当时最大的图书馆之一。

故事到这里是不是感觉很熟悉,是不是很像古旧武打小说里面的情节。所以我大胆的推测故事这部分应该是杜撰出来的。而且神童的老师是不是商容也有不同的声音,毕竟他们不是同时代的人,商容应该比神童大个三百来岁。更可信的说法是神童有过一个叫做常枞的老师,不过历史太过久远了,常枞的故事没能流传下来,被淹没在这漫漫历史之中了,只留下一个舌存齿亡的成语。

神童到了大周图书馆,简直就是如鱼得水,一头扎了进去,埋头苦读。不过很快整个图书馆的书就读完了。没搞错是全都读完了,那个时候的书可不是纸做的,而是竹子或木头做的,把竹子劈成一个指头宽窄,一尺来高的竹片片,再用牛皮绳子编起来,就是竹简,如果实在是找不到竹子,就用木头也做成这么样的,就是木渎。一片竹简最多也就只能写30来个字,一卷下来也就50来片。一共也就30*50=1500字,还赶不上一页A4纸。大名鼎鼎的东方朔在给汉武帝的自荐信里面说自己已经读了四十四万字,学识已经非常非常丰富了,可以担当大任了。四十四万字还赶不上一部长点的中篇小说,而学富五车也就是读了五车这种竹简木渎,一车简渎也就十五万字,五车也就七八十万字,还赶不上一部大点的长篇小说。古人说的读万卷书这么一个宏大的几乎无法实现的目标也就是只是一万页A4纸,也就相当于读了十来部射雕英雄传。

扯了这么多就是想说,那时候书很珍贵,也很稀少。神童能把整个图书馆的馆藏书籍读空,也就不是一件难以想象的事情了。问题是神童把所有书都读了后,发现还是不能回答自己的终极问题:这个世界是什么样子?是怎么样运行的?世界里面的万事万物又是怎么运行的?既然没有答案,那就只好自己潜心专研,自己思考自己领悟了。结果这么一悟就悟了好多年,从小神童悟成了老神童,不过最终终于悟出天地大道。神童把自己的答案写成一部书,一部天书,这部天书可不是天书奇谭里面蛋生和狐狸精斗法好用到的那部呼风唤雨的天书,那个是编的,而这是一部实实在在影响了千秋万代的,并为整个东东思想体系奠定了基础,现在还在影响你我思维习惯,并且影响范围越来越大的天书。这部书就是在每个书店,包括专卖盗版的流动三轮图书店都有得卖的《道德经》,而这个神童自然就是被尊称为太上老君老子的老聃李耳。

这本天书一经问世,就炸开了,被不停的抄写,再抄写。没错就是抄写,那个时候连纸都没,就更没有印刷机了,想要书,就得自己抄。当时所有能接触到这本书的读书人都拿出自己宝贵的竹简木渎来抄写,抄完拿回家后,问题来了,就是看不懂,这书写的太好了,也太玄了,读上去很美,朗朗上口,辞藻优美,句句押韵。可就是不明白在说什么,用现在的词来说就是不明觉厉。你听听开篇第一句:“道可道非常道,名可名非常名”,好听吗?好听,优美吗?优美,文字简单吗?简单,可神马意思?这就蒙圈了。其实这句还是比较简单的,很多人都翻译出来了,可这一段最后一句“玄之又玄,众妙之门”才真是难懂,写的太玄了,起码我看到的注解里面这句话就没人翻对过。

于是这本书也就真的成了一本天书,这可不是我说的这部书是天书,历史公认先秦诸子百家众多著作里面就这本最难懂,很多人都试图搞明白这本书到底说了些什么,不过基本上都只弄明白了一个皮毛。就这么一代人一代人的流传,一代人一代人的努力破解,一直到当年的神童老聃李耳去世697年后,才又出了另一个神童,才系统的破解了这本天书。697年是个什么概念,就是陈国早就没了,大周也没了,灭了大周统一六国的大秦也早不见了,大秦的继任者大汉也都被三分了,大家最熟悉的名将辈出,群星灿烂的三国也落幕了,已经到了煮豆燃豆萁,逼死亲弟弟的曹丕当皇帝的曹魏了。可这部书却传承下来了,可见什么才是最强大的了。

697年后的这个神童就是王弼,王弼这个名字大家可能有点陌生,是因为实在是天妒英才,这么一个天才却在23岁就早早离世了。就这么短短23岁的一生,却写出了《老子注 》、《老子指略 》、《 周易注 》、《 周易略例 》、《 论语释疑 》、《周易大衍论》三卷、《周易穷微论》一卷、《易辩》一卷等数种。而且这些书都不是泛泛而谈,而是真知灼见,全是创造性的解读,是全新的思考。正是王弼首创用《道德经》的思想来解读另一部天书《周易》,在学术上开一代新风———“正始玄风 ”。王弼的易学观体系庞大,内容 深奥 。虽然他像流星一样匆匆闪过,只生活了二十三个春秋,却以其不可思议的天才智慧之光,照亮了整个时代,指明了魏晋玄学的理论航向”。我们现在读到的《道德经》正是王弼整理校订后的版本。

李耳当年的终极问题其实也是很多人的终极问题,这个问题有一种原始的吸引性,吸引人们探索、思考。这个世界是什么样子?是怎么样运行的?世界里面的万事万物又是怎么运行的?这部天书回答了这个问题,也就同样拥有了这种原始的吸引性,吸引人们阅读,并作出自己的解释,历史上为其的注解出了成千上百种,历朝历代都有大量的文人学者,乃至多个皇帝都为其做注解。不过基本都是各说各的,认同和共识少,指责和差异多,这些解读看的越多越迷糊。也让这部书越发神秘,越发有吸引力。

正是这吸引力,我这个老程序猿也翻开了这部天书,仔细一看,吓了一跳,这这不是面向对象的教科书吗?原来天才李耳也是一个程序员,是一个伟大的程序员,这本书其实是他写的面向对象讲义,不过这个讲义是PPT的,不是Word,只有提纲,没有解说词。也不是老子不想写word,而是竹简实在太过珍贵了,只写了五千字。所以不好读懂,不过这还不是最重要的原因,最重要的是古人没有学过面向对象,所以不好理解。运用了面向对象的思想,这本天书就很容易理解了。

老子的这份讲义一共99=81页,并分为两部分,前面37页主要讲:什么是面向对象?解释面向对象的基本概念,王弼把这部分叫做《道经》;后面38页主要是说怎么用面向对象的思想做设计、编程的规范和要点,王弼把这部分称为《德经》,前后两部分合起来就叫做《道德经》,在这之前,其实这部天书是无名的,可以说是无名天书。那么怎么称呼和指代这部天书,人们通常用作者的名字,就叫做《老子》,或者根据篇幅长度叫做《五千言》,再就是把两者合起来叫做《老子五千文》,在王弼之后才有了《道德经》这个大名。

下面我们就正式开始,一页一页的讲。

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